Vol 5No 01mayo 2024

Peasant mobilisation and democratisation in Latin America: Reducing political inequalities in Montes de María, 1950-2000

Vol. 5No. 01mayo 2024pp. 87-105
Palabras clave: 
  • Peasant mobilisation,
  • democratisation,
  • Colombia,
  • political inequalities,
  • social relations

Vistas al resumen: 99 | Descargas: 62

Resumen

This article revisits trajectories of peasant mobilisation in Montes de María (northern Colombia) between 1950 and 2000. The review highlights how those trajectories implied, for those involved, negotiating disagreements and arranging collaborations in the 1980s. Upon this analysis, the article argues that these trajectories were part of a broader process of democratisation. The objective is precisely to propose a discussion about the links between peasant mobilisation and democratisation in Latin America during this period. Indeed, agrarian historians have shown that peasant mobilisation shaped formal political institutions. To complement those findings, though, the article argues for historicising democratisation also as the reduction of political inequalities. This concept of democratisation exceeds formal political institutions and is best observed in changes in social relations. In the case of campesinos in Montes de María, their efforts sought to reduce political inequalities both among them, and between them and other social actors.

Cómo citar

De La Rosa Carriazo, S. (2024). Peasant mobilisation and democratisation in Latin America: Reducing political inequalities in Montes de María, 1950-2000. Historia Agraria De América Latina, 5(01), 87–105. https://doi.org/10.53077/haal.v5i01.165

Citas

  1. Abitbol, P. 2018. Hacia una política pública participativa de memoria histórica en los Montes de María. Economía & Región 12 (1): 133–55. https://revistas.utb.edu.co/index.php/economiayregion/article/view/191 .
  2. Archila Neira, M. 2018. Idas y venidas, vueltas y revueltas: protestas sociales en Colombia (1958-1990). 2nd ed. Bogota: CINEP.
  3. ANUC. 1971. Land without lords: Peasant Mandate from Colombia. NACLA Newsletter 5 (8): 23-29. DOI: 10.1080/10714839.1971.11724199. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10714839.1971.11724199
  4. Avritzer, L. 2002. Democracy and the public space in Latin America. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  5. Bejarano, J. A. 1983. Campesinado, luchas agrarias e historia social: Notas para un balance historiográfico. Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura, no. 11: 251–304. https://repositorio.unal.edu.co/handle/unal/41853 .
  6. Berman-Arévalo, E. 2021. Mapping Violent Land Orders: Armed Conflict, Moral Economies, and the Trajectories of Land Occupation and Dispossession in the Colombian Caribbean. The Journal of Peasant Studies 48 (2): 349–67. DOI: 10.1080/03066150.2019.1655640. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03066150.2019.1655640
  7. Blanco Romero, W. 2010. Historia de El Carmen de Bolívar y su tabaco en los Montes de María: siglos XVIII-XX. Cartagena de Indias: Universidad de Cartagena.
  8. Cameron, J. 2009. Struggles for local democracy in the Andes. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9781626371576
  9. CNRR. 2010. La tierra en disputa: memorias de despojo y resistencia campesina en la costa Caribe, 1960-2010. Bogota: Taurus.
  10. Colmenares Guerra, S. 2017. La inserción de economías regionales periféricas al mercado mundial: el caso del tabaco en el Caribe colombiano, 1850-1914. PhD Thesis, Universitat de Barcelona. http://www.tdx.cat/handle/10803/461455 .
  11. Escobar, C. 2002. Clientelism and Citizenship: The Limits of Democratic Reform in Sucre, Colombia. Latin American Perspectives 29 (5): 20–47. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3185174 . DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0094582X0202900503
  12. Fajardo Montaña, D. 2018. Agricultura, campesinos y alimentos (1980-2010). PhD Thesis, Universidad Externado de Colombia. https://bdigital.uexternado.edu.co/handle/001/786.
  13. Fals Borda, O. 2002. Historia doble de la Costa: Retorno a la tierra. 2nd ed. Vol. 4. Bogotá: El Áncora Editores.
  14. Geddes, B. 2011. What Causes Democratization. In The Oxford Handbook of Political Science, edited by Robert E. Goodin, 593–615. Online edition: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199604456.013.0029. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199604456.013.0029
  15. González Correa, L. M. 2015. Poder local, justicia social y reacción paramilitar: Violencia en los Montes de María (1965-2010). PhD Thesis, Universitat de Barcelona. https://tdx.cat/handle/10803/386543 .
  16. Hernández García, J. 2008. ‘Formas y modos del trabajo en la hacienda tradicional montemariana (1930-1960)’. Palobra: Palabra que obra, no. 9: 100-123. DOI: 10.32997/2346-2884-vol.9-num.9-2008-197. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32997/2346-2884-vol.9-num.9-2008-197
  17. Huber, E. 1995. ‘Introduction’. In Agrarian Structure & Political Power: Landlord & Peasant in the Making of Latin America, editor with Frank Safford, 1-20. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/jj.5973238.4
  18. Kalmanovitz, S. 1971. Colombia: The March Outburst. NACLA Newsletter 5 (3): 14–21. DOI: 10.1080/10714839.1971.11724246. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10714839.1971.11724246
  19. Machado, A. 1998. La cuestión agraria en Colombia a fines del milenio. Bogota: El Áncora Editores.
  20. Machuca Pérez, D. 2016. El impacto de la insurgencia y el conflicto armado en la ANUC: El caso de Sucre. Master Thesis, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. https://repositorio.unal.edu.co/handle/unal/59621 .
  21. Molano Camargo, F. 2017. El campo es leña seca lista para arder. La Liga Marxista Leninista de Colombia, 1971-1982. Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura 44 (2): 137–70. DOI: 10.15446/achsc.V44n2.64018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15446/achsc.v44n2.64018
  22. Moyo, S. 2001. The Land Occupation Movement and Democratisation in Zimbabwe: Contradictions of Neoliberalism. Millennium: Journal of International Studies 30 (2): 311–30. DOI: 10.1177/03058298010300021001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/03058298010300021001
  23. O’Donnell, G. 1993. On the State, Democratization and Some Conceptual Problems: A Latin American View with Glances at Some Post-communist Countries. World Development, 21 (8): 1355–69. DOI: 10.1016/0305-750X(93)90048-E. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X(93)90048-E
  24. Pérez Ortega, J. M. 2010. Luchas campesinas y reforma agraria: memorias de un dirigente de la ANUC en la Costa Caribe. Bogota: Puntoaparte Editores.
  25. Porras Mendoza, E. 2014. Conflictos, violencias y resistencias en los Montes de María. Un análisis de temporalidad extendida. In Territorio y conflicto en la Costa Caribe, edited by Fernán González González, 331–86. Territorio, poder y conflicto. Bogotá:
  26. Rampf, D., D. Castillo and M. Llano. 2014. La historia no contada del Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores: Un análisis de la transición del PRT de un partido clandestino a un actor de la política legal. Paper 4, Inclusive Political Settlements series. Berlin: Berghof Foundation.
  27. Reyes Posada, A. 1978. Latifundio y poder político: la hacienda ganadera en Sucre. Colombia Agraria 2. Bogotá: CINEP.
  28. Rivera Cusicanqui, S. 1987. The Politics and Ideology of the Colombian Peasant Movement: The Case of ANUC (National Association of Peasant Smallholders). Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.
  29. Rojas, S., C. Escobar, and J. G. Ferro. 1992. La visión de las organizaciones nacionales agrarias sobre la coyuntura nacional. Cuadernos de agroindustria y economía rural, no. 28: 39–78. https://revistas.javeriana.edu.co/index.php/desarrolloRural/article/view/3344 .
  30. Roseberry, W. 1993. Beyond the Agrarian Question in Latin America. In Confronting Historical Paradigms: Peasants, Labor and the Capitalist World System in Africa and Latin America, by F. Cooper, F. E. Mallon, S. J. Stern, A.F. Isaacman, and W. Roseberry, 318–68. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
  31. Ruiz, H. 2014. Listening at Uncanny Places: Forced Displacement and Torture as Silencing Processes. Cultural Studies Review 20 (2): 15-38. DOI: 10.5130/csr.v20i2.4094. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5130/csr.v20i2.4094
  32. Sánchez, G. and D. Meertens. 1985. Bandoleros, gamonales y campesinos: el caso de la Violencia en Colombia. 3rd ed. Bogota: El Áncora Editores.
  33. Trevizo, D. 2011. Rural Protest and the Making of Democracy in Mexico, 1968-2000. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press..
  34. United Nations Development Program, Corporación Territorios, and Universidad de Cartagena. 2003. Programa de Desarrollo y Paz de los Montes de María. COL. 01/054. Bogota: UNDP. https://www.undp.org/es/colombia/publications/programa-de-desarrollo-y-paz-de-los-montes-de-maria .
  35. United Nations Human Rights Council. 2018. United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Peasants and Other People Working in Rural Areas. https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/1650694
  36. Valdivia Rivera, S. 2019. Political Networks and Social Movements: Bolivian State-Society Relations under Evo Morales, 2006-2016. CEDLA Latin America Studies 106. New York: Berghahn Books. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv287sgqs
  37. Van Ausdal, S. 2013. Presentación del dossier “Nuevas historias agrarias de América Latina”. Historia Crítica, no. 51: 13-19. DOI: 10.7440/histcrit51.2013.01. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7440/histcrit51.2013.01
  38. Van Cott, D., 2005. From Movements to Parties in Latin America. The Evolution of Ethnic Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511756115
  39. Welch, C., and B. Mançano Fernandes. 2009. Introduction: Peasant Movements in Latin America: Looking Back, Moving Ahead. Latin American Perspectives 36 (4): 3–8. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20684654 . DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0094582X09338612
  40. Zamosc, L. 1986. The Agrarian Question and the Peasant Movement in Colombia: Struggles of the National Peasant Association 1967-1981. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511558948
  41. Zamosc, L., and E. Martínez Borrego. 1997. Modernización agraria y participación política campesina en América Latina: una visión de conjunto. In Estructuras agrarias y movimientos campesinos en América Latina (1950-1990), editors with M. Chiriboga, 11-24. Madrid: Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación.